The 1973 oil crisis forced the American automotive industry into a period of dramatic change, marked by stiff foreign competition, tougher product regulations and suddenly altered consumer demand. With gas prices soaring and the economy in a veritable tailspin, muscle cars and the massive “need-for-speed” engines of the late ’60s were out, and fuel efficient compacts were in.
By 1980, American manufacturers were churning out some of the most feature laden, yet smallest and most fuel efficient cars they had ever built.
Throughout the 1970s, three significant events–the energy crisis, the Clean Air Act passed by Congress, and the push for safer automobiles by consumer advocate groups–put tremendous pressure on car manufacturers and shaped many automobile trends for the decade.
Like other elements in American culture in the 1970s (such as fashion and entertainment), there were striking contrasts between wealthy extravagance and economic hardship, escapist glamor and earthy pragmatism. For this reason, American car manufacturers on one side were producing incredibly powerful, beautifully built muscle cars in the 1970s such as the Pontiac Firebird, the Buick Skylark GSX, and the Chevrolet Corvette with its new 454ci V8 engine.
The average consumer was struggling paying for gas with the high gas prices caused by the energy crisis and preferred cheap compact cars that got better gas mileage.
Car owners were avoiding American-made cars with their gas-hungry (but powerful) engines and purchasing compact imports instead such as Volkswagen. This pushed American car makers to roll out more pragmatic, compact cars, which led to such famous (or perhaps infamous) 1970s compact legends such as the Ford Pinto, GM Vega, AMC Gremlin.
These cars were not especially attractive, but they got the job done and saved the driver money. At the same time, car manufacturers had to redesign automobiles to conform to the new pollution standards passed in the Clean Air Act and also add new safety features such as seat belts, softer dashboards (padded to protect occupants) and other changes that were expensive but kept passengers safer during collisions.
The 1973 Oldsmobile Toronado is an example, which featured the first airbag. This led to an overall increase in the cost of automobiles, which pushed consumers to become even more thrifty in their car shopping.
Thanks for stopping by and enjoy your stroll through 1970s American Cars!!